Benign violation

  1. A situation is a violation
  2. the situation is benign
  3. Both perceptions occur simultaneously

A violation refers to anything that threatens one’s beliefs about how the world should be

  1. Alternative norms (e.g., one meaning of a phrase in a pun doesn’t make sense, but the other meaning does)
  2. commitment to a violated norm (e.g., men find sexist jokes funnier than women do)
  3. psychological distance (e.g., “comedy is tragedy plus time”)